|Silvana Junges, Aline Veigas, Maria Gabriela Valle Gottlieb
Background and objective: Evidence suggests that the intake of functional foods, such as Camellia sinensis extract (CSE), and Pilates exercises could play a key role in reducing the risk for metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of Pilates exercises and supplementation with CSE in body composition of female patients diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.
Subjects and methods: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with postmenopausal participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome. A total of 50 participants were randomized into four groups: Pilates + CSE (n = 14); Pilates + Placebo (n = 11); CSE (n = 11), and Placebo (n = 14). Intervention groups (CSE and Pilates + CSE) were given a capsule containing 500 mg of CSE every day for 24 weeks. The placebo group received one capsule containing placebo for 24 weeks. The 60-minute Pilates exercises were performed twice a week for 24 weeks. Body composition at baseline and after intevention was assessed. This study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Pontifical Catholic University.
Results: The mean lean mass and percentage lean mass of the Pilates + CSE and Pilates + Placebo groups were significantly higher than those of the CSE and Placebo groups (P < 0.05). There was a reduction in percentage fat mass and fat mass in the Pilates + CSE and Pilates + Placebo groups compared with the Placebo group (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Pilates exercises with or without supplementation with CSE can improve the body composition in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.
Trial registration: N° registro ReBEC:RBR-2sgtn2.
Background and objective: Healthy diet, exercise, drugs, and insulin-based interventions can help control the progression of type 2 diabetes. However, these methods are insufficient for advanced disease progression. Previous studies found that the transplantation of stem cells to repair or replace damaged tissues and cells is a promising treatment for type 2 diabetes. This article aimed to summarize and visualize the current status and frontiers of research into stem cell therapies for type 2 diabetes, both in China and globally.
Methods: WanFang (China) and Web of Science (United States) entries were retrieved for studies on stem cell therapies for type 2 diabetes. Visualization techniques were used to analyze publication year, country, institutional affiliation, author, journal, funding source, and keywords, as well as to compare the distribution of different types of stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We also retrieved relevant clinical trial, drug, and patent information available from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, China National Medical Products Administration, US Food and Drug Administration, China National Intellectual Property Administration, and US Patent and Trademark Office.
Results and conclusion: We found that: (1) stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes was first reported in 1998. Thereafter, the number of relevant studies has risen at a slow rate, but increased rapidly since 2012. In China, stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes was first reported in 2000, two years later than the first publication globally. (2) Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and pancreatic stem cells are the main types of stem cells used in China for treatment of type 2 diabetes. (3) In China, studies regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes were mainly associated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University School of Medicine. In the United States, relevant articles were mainly from the University of California and Harvard University. (4) In China, stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes was mainly reported in two core journals, Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research and Chinese Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, whereas, PLoS One, Diabetes, Diabetologia, and Stem Cell Research Therapy were the major relevant journals worldwide. (5) Globally, institutions providing major sources of funding for stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes included the US National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, and National Natural Science Foundation of China. (6) There were four relevant clinical registries in the China Clinical Trial Registry and 17 on ClinicalTrials.gov. (7) No approval of stem cells as a treatment for type 2 diabetes has been issued in China or other countries. However, numerous relevant patents have been filed. Here, we report development trends, research hotspots, and the distribution features of stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Our results provide relevant experimental data in chronological order for further use in clinical practice.