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 Table of Contents  
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-17

Hotspots and prospects of stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes: bibliometric and visual analysis based on publications, clinical registries, drug approval information, and patent information in China and the United States


Editorial Office of Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China

Date of Submission15-Jan-2020
Date of Decision20-Jan-2020
Date of Acceptance07-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication13-Apr-2020

Correspondence Address:
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2542-3975.281716

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  Abstract 


Background and objective: Healthy diet, exercise, drugs, and insulin-based interventions can help control the progression of type 2 diabetes. However, these methods are insufficient for advanced disease progression. Previous studies found that the transplantation of stem cells to repair or replace damaged tissues and cells is a promising treatment for type 2 diabetes. This article aimed to summarize and visualize the current status and frontiers of research into stem cell therapies for type 2 diabetes, both in China and globally.
Methods: WanFang (China) and Web of Science (United States) entries were retrieved for studies on stem cell therapies for type 2 diabetes. Visualization techniques were used to analyze publication year, country, institutional affiliation, author, journal, funding source, and keywords, as well as to compare the distribution of different types of stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We also retrieved relevant clinical trial, drug, and patent information available from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, China National Medical Products Administration, US Food and Drug Administration, China National Intellectual Property Administration, and US Patent and Trademark Office.
Results and conclusion: We found that: (1) stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes was first reported in 1998. Thereafter, the number of relevant studies has risen at a slow rate, but increased rapidly since 2012. In China, stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes was first reported in 2000, two years later than the first publication globally. (2) Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and pancreatic stem cells are the main types of stem cells used in China for treatment of type 2 diabetes. (3) In China, studies regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes were mainly associated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University School of Medicine. In the United States, relevant articles were mainly from the University of California and Harvard University. (4) In China, stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes was mainly reported in two core journals, Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research and Chinese Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, whereas, PLoS One, Diabetes, Diabetologia, and Stem Cell Research Therapy were the major relevant journals worldwide. (5) Globally, institutions providing major sources of funding for stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes included the US National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, and National Natural Science Foundation of China. (6) There were four relevant clinical registries in the China Clinical Trial Registry and 17 on ClinicalTrials.gov. (7) No approval of stem cells as a treatment for type 2 diabetes has been issued in China or other countries. However, numerous relevant patents have been filed. Here, we report development trends, research hotspots, and the distribution features of stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Our results provide relevant experimental data in chronological order for further use in clinical practice.

Keywords: bibliometrics; cell transplantation; clinical registration; drug; patent; stem cells; type 2 diabetes; visualization


How to cite this article:
. Hotspots and prospects of stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes: bibliometric and visual analysis based on publications, clinical registries, drug approval information, and patent information in China and the United States. Clin Trials Degener Dis 2020;5:5-17

How to cite this URL:
. Hotspots and prospects of stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes: bibliometric and visual analysis based on publications, clinical registries, drug approval information, and patent information in China and the United States. Clin Trials Degener Dis [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 3];5:5-17. Available from: https://www.clinicaltdd.com/text.asp?2020/5/1/5/281716




  Introduction Top


The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a degenerative disease that severely impacts the health of patients, is increasing annually worldwide. Patients with type 2 diabetes often exhibit a decreased number of islet β cells and functional decline with age, which in turn reduces insulin secretion, leading to abnormal glucose metabolism and related metabolic disorders.[1] Currently, insulin, insulin intervention, and exercise plus diet are the main clinical methods to treat type 2 diabetes.[2],[3] However, blood glucose levels still tend to gradually increase with disease progression.[4] Thus, new treatment measures are necessary to improve therapeutic effects.

Stem cell therapy involves the use of transplanted stem cells to repair or replace damaged cells or tissues.[5] Previous studies have attempted to transplant embryonic stem cells, pluripotent stem cells, and adult stem cells to treat type 2 diabetes.[6],[7] These stem cells may differentiate into islet β cells in the right mi- croenvironment; secrete a variety of pro-angiogenic factors to promote islet angiogenesis, increase local oxygen supply and nutritional components, and promote β cell proliferation; or secrete multiple nutritional factors to reduce β-cell apoptosis.[8] To this end, we conducted a search of multiple global databases to summarize and visualize the current status and frontiers of research into stem cell therapies for type 2 diabetes, both in China and globally. Additionally, we evaluated the distribution of different types of stem cells for treatment of type 2 diabetes in the literature. Our findings provide informatics that may facilitate the clinical treatment of type 2 diabetes with stem cell therapies.


  Data and Methods Top


Data collection

Literature databases

WanFang (China) and Web of Science (United States) data- bases were searched for relevant literature published from inception until December 2019, using the keywords “stem cell transplantation” and “type 2 diabetes” in Chinese and English, respectively.

Clinical registries

The Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (www.chictr.org.cn) and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for clinical research registrations regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes.

Drugs and patents

A search of the China National Medical Products Administration, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), China National Intellectual Property Administration, and US Patent and Trademark Office was conducted to screen for drugs and patents related to stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes.

Data analysis

For articles related to stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes, assessments of publication date, authors, institutional affiliations, journals, funding source, citation frequency, and download frequency were conducted using software provided by WanFang and Web of Science. CiteSpace5.6.R1 was used to analyze the annual distribution of keywords and burst terms extracted from Web of Science. We also manually retrieved information for drugs included in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, China National Medical Products Administration, and US FDA database, as well as patents included in the China National Intellectual Property Administration, and US Patent and Trademark Office. Information classification was implemented using Excel 2010 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA).


  Results Top


Annual distribution of publications regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes

The world’s earliest article regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes was published in 1998. Subsequently, the number of relevant articles increased at a slow rate but began to sharply increase in 2012. In China, the first study of stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes was reported in 2000; prior to 2008, the number of articles published was less than 15 per year, which has since slightly increased to 30-40 articles per year [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Annual distribution of publications related to stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes in China and worldwide. Note: Chinese data are from WanFang database, while global data are from the Web of Science database.

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Comparison of publications on different types of stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

In China, the main types of stem cells used for treatment of type 2 diabetes were bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and pancreatic stem cells, as reported in 65 and 62 articles, respectively. The dates of publication were mainly distributed from 2009 to 2016 for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and in 2009, 2011, and 2015 for pancreatic stem cells [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Annual distribution of publications regarding different types of stem cells for type 2 diabetes in China.
Note: Existing studies on the use of stem cells for type 2 diabetes mainly focused on four kinds of stem cells: bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and pancreatic stem cells. Studies on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and pancreatic stem cells accounted for a high percentage of all literature regarding stem cells.


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Distribution of countries/territories with publications regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes

According to retrieval results from the Web of Science database, publications on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes were from 67 countries and regions. Countries with over 40 relevant articles included the United States, China, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Canada, South Korea, Germany, and Spain [Figure 3]. Over 50% of publications were from the United States and China.
Figure 3: Major countries/territories with publications on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes based on the Web of Science database.
Note: Data are from the Web of Science database.


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Distribution of institutions with publications pertinent to stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes

China and global institutions with published articles regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes

According to results retrieved from the WanFang database, institutions with over five relevant publications were relatively scattered geographically, including Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University School of Medicine [Figure 4]A. According to results retrieved from the Web of Science database, relevant publications were mainly from the University of California and Harvard University, which have both published more than 35 research articles in this field. In addition, PLA General Hospital and Shanghai Jiao Tong University published many relevant publications in global journals [Figure 4]B.
Figure 4: Distribution of institutions with many publications on the use of stem cells for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Note: (A) The top ten scientific research institutions with relevant publications extracted from the WanFang database. I–X indicate (I) Shanghai Jiao Tong University, (II) Peking Union Medical College, (III) Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, (IV) Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University School of Medicine, (V) Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Nanjing University, (VI) Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University/Hebei Cancer Hospital, (VII) Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, (VIII) Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, (IX) Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, (X) Union Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. (B) The top ten institutions with relevant publications included in the Web of Science database. I–X indicate (I) the University of California System, (II) Harvard University, (III) Institut National De La Sante Et De La Recherche Medicale Inserm, (IV) China PLA General Hospital, (V) Shanghai Jiao Tong University, (VI) University of California Los Angeles, (VII) Pennsylvania Commonwealth System of Higher Education PCSHE, (VIII) University of California San Francisco, (IX) University of Padua, and (X) Air Force Military Medical University of China.


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Comparison of institutions with publications related to different types of stem cell research articles

Differences in the distribution of research institutions were observed regarding focus on different types of stem cells. In China, institutions with many publications on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for type 2 diabetes included the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Shenzhen People’s Hospital, and Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University School of Medicine. There were three institutions with more than two publications on adipose stem cells for type 2 diabetes, including Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, PLA Navy Yantai Hospital, and Qingdao University School of Medicine. Institutions with more than two publications on embryonic stem cell therapy included Peking University Third Hospital, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, PLA Navy Yantai Hospital, and Qingdao University School of Medicine. Pancreatic stem cell therapy for diabetes was mainly reported by Northwest A & F University. Outside China, Shahid Beheshti University Medical Sciences and Ciber Centro De Investigacion Biomedica En Red had the highest number of publications on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and adipose stem cells for type 2 diabetes, respectively. Harvard University had the highest number of publications on embryonic stem cells and pancreatic stem cells [Figure 5].
Figure 5: Distribution of institutions with studies on different types of stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Note: (A–D) Distribution of institutions in China with publications on (A) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, (B) adipose stem cells, (C) embryonic stem cells, and (D) pancreatic stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (E–H) Global distribution of institutions with publications on (E) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, (F) adipose stem cells, (G) embryonic stem cells, and (H) pancreatic stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (A) I–X indicate (I) the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, (II) Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, (III) Shenzhen People's Hospital, (IV) Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University School of Medicine, (V) Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, (VI) the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, (VII) China-Japan Friendship Hospital, (VIII) Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, (IX) West China Hospital of Sichuan University, (X) the 12th People's Hospital of Guangzhou. (B) I–X indicate (I) Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, (II) PLA Navy Yantai Hospital, (III) Qingdao University School of Medicine, (IV) Shanghai Jiao Tong University, (V) Shanghai Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, (VI) China Medical University, (VII) Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, (VIII) Beihua University, (IX) Southern Medical University, (X) Huadong Hospital of Fudan University. (C) I–X indicate (I) Peking University Third Hospital, (II) Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, (III) PLA Navy Yantai Hospital, (IV) Qingdao University School of Medicine, (V) Shanghai Jiao Tong University, (VI) Shanghai Model Organisms Center, (VII) Central South University, (VIII) China Medical University, (IX) China-Japan Friendship Hospital, (X) Peking Union Medical College Hospital. (D) I–X indicate (I) Northwest A&F University, (II) Peking University, (III) Peking University Third Hospital, (IV) Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, (V) Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, (VI) Tianjin Xianshuigu Hospital, (VII) Guangdong Ocean University, (VIII) Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, (IX) PLA Navy Yantai Hospital, (X) the First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University.


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Institutions with more than two publications on embryonic stem cell therapy included Peking University Third Hospital, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, PLA Navy Yantai Hospital, and Qingdao University School of Medicine.

Distribution of authors with publications on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes

Whether inside or outside China, authors engaged in stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes published relatively low numbers of articles on the subject. Indeed, only three authors published more than 10 relevant articles [Figure 6]. We also found that numbers of publications on different types of stem cells were similar between the top ten authors [Figure 7].
Figure 6: Distribution of authors with the most publications on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes.
Note: (A) Top 10 authors with relevant publications in China. (B) Top 10 authors with relevant publications worldwide. Both inside and outside China, authors engaged in stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes had relatively few publications.


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Figure 7: Distribution of authors with publications on different types of stem cells for treating type 2 diabetes.
Note: (A–D) Distribution of Chinese authors with relevant publications on (A) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, (B) adipose stem cells, (C) embryonic stem cells, and (D) pancreatic stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (E–H) Global distribution of authors with relevant publications on (E) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, (F) adipose stem cells, (G) embryonic stem cells, and (H) pancreatic stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.


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Distribution of journals with publications on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes

In China, there were 155 journals with publications on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes, most of which were core journals issued by the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China and/or Peking University. The Chinese journal that published the highest number of relevant articles was Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, which published 44 relevant articles, followed by Chinese Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, with 11 relevant articles [Figure 8]. Globally, PLoS One, Diabetes, Diabetologia, and Stem Cell Research Therapy published the highest numbers of relevant articles in this field [Figure 8].
Figure 8: Distribution of major journals with publications on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes.
Note: (A) Journals in China with the highest number of relevant publications. (B) Journals with the highest number of relevant publications worldwide.


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Comparison of journals with publications on different types of stem cells for treating type 2 diabetes

Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research was the first journal in China to publish articles describing multiple types of stem cells for the treatment of type 2 diabetes [Figure 9]A, [Figure 9]B, [Figure 9]C, [Figure 9]D. Globally, publications regarding different types of stem cells have been published in various journals. Stem Cell Research Therapy focused on the use of adipose stem cells for type 2 diabetes, whereas Diabetologia had the largest number of publications on embryonic stem cells for type 2 diabetes. PloS One tended to publish articles describing use of pancreatic stem cells for type 2 diabetes [Figure 9]E, [Figure 9]F, [Figure 9]G, [Figure 9]H.
Figure 9: Distribution of journals with publications on different types of stem cells for type 2 diabetes.
Note: (A–D) Distribution of Chinese journals with publications on (A) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, (B) adipose stem cells, (C) embryonic stem cells, and (D) pancreatic stem cells for treatment of type 2 diabetes. (E–H) Global distribution of journals with relevant publications on (E) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, (F) adipose stem cells, (G) embryonic stem cells, and (H) pancreatic stem cells for treatment of type 2 diabetes.(A) I–X indicate (I) Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, (II) Chinese Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, (III) Chinese Journal of Organ Transplantation, (IV) Chinese Journal of Experimental Surgery, (V) Lingnan Modern Clinics in Surgery, (VI) Organ Transplantation, (VII) Journal of Jilin University(Medicine Edition), (VIII) Journal of Chengdu Medical College, (IX) Journal of Chongqing Medical University, (X) Contemporary Medicine. (B) I–X indicate (I) Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, (II) Chinese Journal of Burns, (III) Chinese Journal of Endocrine Surgery, (IV) Chinese Journal of Medical Aesthetics and Cosmetology, (V) Chinese Journal of Transplantation (Electronic Edition), (VI) Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, (VII) Journal of China Medical University, (VIII) Maternal and Child Health Care of China, (IX) Clinical Medical & Engineering, (X) Clinical Focus. (C) I–X indicate (I) Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, (II) World Chinese Journal of Digestology, (III) Chinese Journal of Endocrine Surgery, (IV) National Medical Journal of China, (V) Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology, (VI) Chinese Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, (VII) Chinese Medical Biotechnology, (VIII) Maternal and Child Health Care of China, (IX) China Biotechnology, (X) Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion. (D) I–X indicate (I) Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, (II) Chinese Journal of Experimental Surgery, (III) Guangdong Medical Journal, (IV) Chinese Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, (V) Chinese Journal of Cell and Stem Cell (Electronic Edition), (VI) Jilin University (Medicine Edition), (VII) Journal of Third Military Medical University, (VIII) Progress in Veterinary Medicine, (IX) Medical & Pharmaceutical Journal of Chinese PLA, (X) World Chinese Journal of Digestology.


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Distribution of funding agencies related to stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes

Fifty-three of the 290 relevant articles published in China were funded by the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation of China, Guangdong Science and Technology Plan Project, General Project of Lanzhou Military Region, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and/or Tianjin Science and Technology Plan of China. The main institutions funding studies on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes worldwide included the National Institutes Of Health (NIH) and US Department of Health and Human Services, followed by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Figure 10].
Figure 10: Distribution of funding agencies related to stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes.
Note: (A) The top ten funding agencies that supported most included studies in China. Primary funding sources included (I) Guangdong Natural Science Foundation of China, (II) Guangdong Science and Technology Plan Project, (III) General Project of Lanzhou Military Region, (IV) National Natural Science Foundation of China, (V) Tianjin Science and Technology Plan of China, (VI) Shanghai Science and Technology Development Fund, (VII) Shanghai Natural Science Fund, (VIII) China Postdoctoral Science Fund, (IX) 12th Five-Year Plan for Military Medical Science and Technology Research, and (X) Scientific Fund of Peking University Aerospace Clinical School. (B) Funding agencies that supported most included studies worldwide included (I) the US NIH; (II) US Department of Health Human Services; (III) National Natural Science Foundation of China; (IV) Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation; (V) NIH National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases; (VI) European Union; American Diabetes Association; (VII) Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (Japan); (VIII) American Heart Association; (IX) NIH National Institute on Aging; and (X) National Basic Research Program of China.


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Keyword distribution of publications on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes

The top ten Chinese keywords for searches in WanFang related to stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes were “diabetes,” “transplantation,” “stem cells,” “bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells,” “stem cell transplantation,” “type 2 diabetes,” “islet transplantation,” “diabetic foot,” “type 1 diabetes,” and “rats.” The first six keywords appeared more than 30 times [Figure 11]A. The top ten keywords for searches in Web of Science were “diabetes mellitus,” “stem cell,” “mesenchymal stem cell,” “differentiation,” “bone marrow,” “expression,” “transplantation,” “diabetes,” “in vitro,” and “insulin resis-tance.” The first eight of these keywords appeared over 100 times [Figure 11]B.
Figure 11: Top keywords related to stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes.
Note: (A) Numbers of occurrences of major hot keywords. (B) Top keywords for searches in Web of Science, as determined by CiteSpace. (C) Burst terms for searches in Web of Science, as determined by CiteSpace.


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To evaluate research hotspots, CiteSpace was used to calculate the burst terms of Web of Science results [Figure 11]C. Previous studies mainly focused on the differentiation of stem cells. However, since 2010, increasing concern has been paid to the secretory function of stem cells, i.e., possible effects of growth factors secreted from stem cells or factors that promote the secretion of growth factors from stem cells.

Highly-cited and highly-downloaded publications regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes in China

In China, the most frequently cited article regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes was cited 14 times, while another 8 articles were cited more than 10 times [Table 1].
Table 1: Highly-cited publications on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes in China

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There were ten Chinese articles related to stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes downloaded over 300 times, and two articles were downloaded over 500 times [Table 2].
Table 2: Highly-downloaded publications on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes in China

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Clinical registration information for stem cell therapies for type 2 diabetes

There were four clinical registries regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes registered by Chinese institutional authors in the China Clinical Trial Registry [Table 3]. One trial was registered in 2010, 2012, 2018, and 2019. Types of stem cells involved included adipose stem cells, dental pulp mesenchy- mal stem cells, and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. Two trials were conducted at the General Hospital of the Chinese Armed Police Force, one at the Renmin Hospital of Hubei University of Medicine, and one at Shanghai Changhai Hospital.
Table 3: Clinical registries regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes by Chinese institutions and authors in the China Clinical Trial Registry

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There were 17 funded clinical registries regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes on ClinicalTrials.gov [Table 4]. Registration year, country, and stem cell type of the included registries are shown in [Figure 12].
Table 4: Clinical registries regarding stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes in ClinicalTrials.gov

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Figure 12: Registration year, country, and type of stem cells used for relevant clinical registries in ClinicalTrials.gov.
Note: (A) Annual distribution of registry entries. (B) Distribution of countries for registry entries. (C) Distribution of types of stem cells for registry entries.


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China had the largest number of relevant clinical registries in ClincialTrials.gov (eight registries), followed by India (five registries), Vietnam (two registries), the United States (one registry), and the Philippines (one registry), as shown in [Figure 12]B.

Drug information and patent information related to stem cell therapies for type 2 diabetes

China has not yet approved the use of stem cells as drugs, although 14 cell or gene products have been permitted by the US FDA.[29] However, none of the US FDA-approved products are for the treatment of diabetes.

China had a remarkable increase in the number of patents for stem cell treatments for diabetes in 2017 and 2018. The main type of stem cells cited in patents was mesenchymal stem cells [Table 5]. In the United States, patents related to stem cell treatment of diabetes are relatively rare [Table 6].
Table 5: Patents related to stem cell therapy for diabetes in China

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Table 6: Patents related to stem cell therapy for diabetes in the United States

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  Discussion Top


To visually show the overall development of stem cell therapies for type 2 diabetes, we analyzed relevant publications, clinical registries, and patents based on research data and information from WanFang, Web of Science, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, China National Medical Products Administration, US FDA, China National Intellectual Property

Administration, and the US Patent and Trademark Office. Although the number of relevant publications, patent applications, and drug approvals is slowly rising in China, research on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes is rapidly developing. PLoS One, Diabetes, Diabetologia, and Stem Cell Research Therapy have all published articles related to stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes from Chinese authors. In terms of institutional support, the University of California and Harvard University are core institutions with many publications devoted to stem cell therapies for type 2 diabetes. Regarding funding, the NIH, US Department of Health and Human Services, and National Natural Science Foundation of China have supported many studies on stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes.

Types of stem cells that have been used for type 2 diabetes include bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and pancreatic stem cells.

Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and pancreatic stem cells are more frequently reported as potential treatments for type 2 diabetes. Although globally no stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes has been approved, there are many patents related to such treatments. Transplantation of adult stem cells and immune rejection of exogenous stem cell transplantation remain the focus of attention for future research on stem cell therapies for type 2 diabetes. The use of stem cell transplantation for type 2 diabetes is an innovative method with many unknown factors, and further improvements in clinical efficacy and safety are warranted.

Data sharing statement

No data is reported in the article.

Plagiarism check

Checked twice by iThenticate.

Peer review

Externally peer reviewed.

Open access statement

This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

C-Editor: Zhao M; S-Editors: Yu J, Li CH; L-Editor: Wang L; T-Editor: Jia Y



 
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    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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