|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 7-13
Efficacy and safety of Mamajjaka Ghanavati in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A prospective open label multi-center clinical study
Malalur Nagesh Shubhashree1, Bikartan Das2, Gopal Chandra Nanda3, Gaddam Kumara Swamy4, Sarada Ota5, Shashidhar Doddamani1, Meda Mruthyumjaya Rao6, Vimal Tewari7, Baghwan Sahai Sharma5, Shruti Khanduri5, Rakesh Rana5, Richa Singhal5, Adarsh Kumar5, Narayanam Srikanth5
1 Technical Department, Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Metabolic Disorders (RARIMD), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Technical Department, Central Ayurveda Research Institute for Hepatobiliary Disorders (CARIHD), Bhubneshwar, India
3 Technical Department, Dr. AchantaLakshmipati Research Centre for Ayurveda (DALRCA), Chennai, India
4 Technical Department, Central Ayurveda Research Institute for Neuromuscular & Muscular-Skeletal Disorders (CARINMSD), Cheruthuruthy, Kerala, India
5 Technical Department, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi, India
6 Technical Department, Central Ayurveda Research Institute for Drug Development (CARIDD), Kolkata, West Bengal, India
7 Technical Department, Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Infectious Diseases(RARIID), Patna, Bihar, India
|Date of Submission||07-Sep-2018|
|Date of Acceptance||19-Dec-2018|
|Date of Web Publication||25-Mar-2019|
Technical Department, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Clinical trial registration CTRI/2017/09/009887
Background and objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of Mamajjaka Ghanavati on blood glucose level, symptoms, and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Subjects and methods: This prospective, multi-center, open-label, single-arm clinical study was performed at three peripheral institutes of the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi during April 2016 to May 2017. A total of 177 eligible patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included and administered Mamajjaka Ghanavati two tablets (500 mg each) twice daily after food for 84 days. At the end of the treatment period (84th day), the changes in Diabetes Symptom Questionnaire (i.e., glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels) were analyzed. Quality of life was evaluated using 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical safety of Mamajjaka Ghanavati was assessed by liver and renal function tests. This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi (approval number: CTRI Reg No Ref/2016/06/011468) on March 14, 2016.
Results: Compared to baseline data, after 84 days of treatment with Mamajjaka Ghanavati, Diabetes Symptom Questionnaire score was significantly decreased, and SF-36 score was significantly increased (both P < 0.01). However, compared to baseline data, no significant differences in glycated hemoglobin, fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels as well as hepatic and renal parameters were observed after 84 days of treatment with Mamajjaka Ghanavati.
Conclusion: Mamajjaka Ghanavati can greatly improve the quality of life and is safe in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Actually, Mamajjaka Ghanavati does not change blood sugar level greatly.
Trial registration: This study was registered in the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2017/09/009887) on September 22, 2017.
Keywords: Mamajjaka Ghanavati; type 2 diabetes mellitus; Madhumeha; quality of life; blood glucose; efficacy; safety; single-arm clinical trial
|How to cite this article:|
Shubhashree MN, Das B, Nanda GC, Swamy GK, Ota S, Doddamani S, Rao MM, Tewari V, Sharma BS, Khanduri S, Rana R, Singhal R, Kumar A, Srikanth N. Efficacy and safety of Mamajjaka Ghanavati in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A prospective open label multi-center clinical study. Clin Trials Degener Dis 2019;4:7-13
|How to cite this URL:|
Shubhashree MN, Das B, Nanda GC, Swamy GK, Ota S, Doddamani S, Rao MM, Tewari V, Sharma BS, Khanduri S, Rana R, Singhal R, Kumar A, Srikanth N. Efficacy and safety of Mamajjaka Ghanavati in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A prospective open label multi-center clinical study. Clin Trials Degener Dis [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jun 26];4:7-13. Available from: http://www.clinicaltdd.com/text.asp?2019/4/1/7/254106
Funding: This work was supported by a grant from Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Ministry of AYUSH, New Delhi.
| Introduction|| |
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been vividly described in the context of Madhumeha in classical Ayurveda with striking resemblance of its Ayurvedic concepts with latest knowledge on diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. DM has become one of the largest global health emergencies during the 21st century and leads to life-threatening health problems. According to International Diabetes Federation estimates, around 415 million people had DM in 2015 and this number is estimated to rise to 642 million by 2040. India is home to 69.1 million people with DM and is estimated to have the second highest number of cases of DM in the world after China in 2015. Indians are also believed to have a greater degree of insulin resistance and a stronger genetic predisposition to diabetes. As evident by the trends diabetes would be the seventh-leading cause of mortality by the year 2030. World health organization has emphasized to control Diabetes through its current theme “Beat Diabetes”.
Ayurveda considers diabetes as Kaphaja disease in which Medas (adipose factor) and Ojas (Biostrength/immunity) have been described as the main factors which are responsible for the disease diasthesis. Mamajjaka (Enicostemma littorale auct. non Bl) is a familiar herb used in Madhumeha particularly in the state of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan which is said to possess anti-diabetic properties & antioxidant property. It contains the Mamajjaka extract (8 parts), Mamajjaka churna (2 parts), Katuki (Picrorrhiza kurroa; 2 parts), Pippali (Piper longum; 2 parts), and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum; 2 parts). Mamajjaka was described in Lakshmanadi Varga of Shodhala Nighantu. It is therapeutically indicated in Madhumeha (diabetes) and Medoroga (obesity). It has Tikta rasa (bitter taste), Laghu guna, Ushna veerya (hot in potency), Katu Vipak and mentioned as Kaphapittashamak (subsided all the three humors) and it is effective for Prameha (urinary disorders), Madhumeha (diabetes), and other disorders. With this perspective, the present study was performed to clinically evaluate efficacy and satefy of Mamajjaka ghanavati in the treatment of Madhumeha (type 2 DM; T2DM).
The primary objective of this study is to assess the clinical efficacy of Mamajjaka Ghanavati in the treatment of T2DM.The secondary objectives are to assess the clinical safety and changes in the quality of life (QOL) in patients with T2DM.
| Subjects and Methods|| |
Study design and setting
This prospective, open-label, multi-centre, single-arm study was conducted at three peripheral institutes of Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, that is Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Metabolic Disorders (RARIMD), Bengaluru, Central Ayurvedic Research Institute for Hepatobiliary Disorders, Bhubaneswar and Regional Ayurvedic Research Institute for Eye Diseases, Lucknow under the Intra Mural Clinical research (IMR) program. The trial drug was administered for 84 days among 177 patients with clinically diagnosed T2DM. Written consents of these participants were obtained before their enrolment (Additional file 1 [Additional file 1]). The trial drug was prepared and standardized as per Standard Operative Procedures described in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of each participating institute (approval number: CTRI Reg No Ref/2016/06/011468) on March 14, 2016 and performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The clinical trial was registered in the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2017/09/009887) on September 22, 2017.
Subjects presenting with all of the following conditions were considered for inclusion in this study: suffering from T2DM, either sex, age between 35 and 65 years, fasting blood sugar (FBS) level between 6.99–11.1 mM, postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) level 11.1–13.75 mM,, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 4.8–7.5%, willing to participate in this study for 12 weeks.
Subjects presenting with any of the following were excluded from this study: those who used insulin for glucose control or had type 1 DM or those who concurrently used Metformin to control blood glucose levels; those suffering from the complications of DM, including diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy; those who had a past history of atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, stroke or severe arrhythmia in the last 6 months as well as hypertension (> 140/90 mmHg) or clinical evidence of heart failure. Further, subjects with concurrent serious hepatic dysfunction (defined as aspartate transaminase and/or alanine transaminase > 3 times of the upper normal limit) or renal dysfunction (defined as serum creatinine > 106.8 µM), uncontrolled pulmonary dysfunction (asthmatic and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients) or other concurrent severe disease, alcoholics and/or drug abusers as well as subjects on steroids, oral contraceptive pills or estrogen replacement therapy were also excluded from the study. Subjects who had completed participation in any other clinical trial during the past 6 months, pregnant/lactating women as well as evidence of malignancy, those suffering from major systemic illness necessitating long term drug treatment (rheumatoid arthritis, psycho-neuro-endocrinal disorders) and those with a history of sensitivity to any of the trial drugs or their ingredients or any other condition which may jeopardize the study were excluded.
All the subjects were free to withdraw from the study at any time on their own. The effort was made to collect the data of such subjects by making phone calls. The investigator withdrew the subjects from the study if the FBS level rose to > 13.75 mM or postprandial/random blood glucose level increased to > 16.5 mM and was controllable within 1 month. Or if any serious complication developed which required urgent treatment with any other drug/therapy (not related to diabetes mellitus).
Mamajjaka Ghanavati was procured from Pharmacy of Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. It was administered orally in a dose of one gram (two tablets of 500 mg each) twice daily after food with water for 84 days. The drug was prepared according to the Standard Objective Procedures for the preparation of Ghanavati and standards mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API). The Kwath churna (Mesh no. 44) of dried Mammajak was taken in vessel and soaked overnight in potable water. On the next day, the content was heated to maintain temperature around 100°C without covering the mouth of the container and stirring the content continuously. The content was filtered through a piece of clean muslin cloth to reduce to ¼th part (Mamajjak kwath). This kwath was again heated to 90–95°C with continuous stirring till the attainment of semisolid consistency (Mamajjak Ghana). The safety parameters, i.e., content of heavy metals, aflotoxin and microbial load were within the permissible limit as per the guidelines of API.
Laboratory investigations [such as FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, hemoglobin (Hb) %, total leucocyte count, and differential leucocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood urea (serum electrolytes–sodium, potassium, and chloride), serum uric acid, serum creatinine], liver function tests (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, total protein, serum albumin, and serum globulin), lipid profile, and urine tests for glucose, protein, white blood cells, red blood cells were done at the commencement (baseline) and the end of the study. However, electrocardiogram and micro albuminuria measurement were done initially to rule out cardiac diseases and nephropathy.
The primary outcome measure was the change in HbA1c on the 84th day relative to baseline data. The secondary outcome measures included change in blood sugar (fasting and postprandial) and change in symptoms assessed by Diabetes Symptoms Questionnaire (DSQ) at the end of the 28th, 56th, and 84th days relative to baseline data.
The ayurvedic parameters as described in classical ayurveda, i.e., prabhootamutrata-excessive urination, avilamootrata (urine turbidity), madhvivamehati-passes urine similar to Madhu, Madhuryachatanoratah-patient's body starts yielding sweet smell and taste, Malina danta (tartar in teeth), Hasta pada daha (burning sensation of hands and feet), Deha chikkanata (excessively glossy/oily skin), Trishna (excessive thirst), Madhurya masya (feeling sweetness in mouth), Prabhuta mutrata (excessive urination), Avila mutrata (turbid urination), Madhu samana varna of mutra (urine presenting color of honey), Sweda (excessive perspiration), Anga gandha (bad body odour) Shithilangata (flaccidity of muscles), Shayana asana Swapna sukha (desire for sedentary life), Shitapriyatwa (desire for cold food & environment), Gala talu shosha (dryness of palate & throat) were also assessed at baseline and at the 84th day of the treatment. Clinical safety of Mamajjaka Ghanavati and change in QOL were assessed by liver and renal function tests and using 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), respectively on the 84th day relative to baseline.
Subjects were followed up on the 14th, 28th, 42nd, 56th, 70th and 84th days for clinical assessment. Drug compliance was assessed in a special form which was issued to each subject for filling up to ensure the consumption of medicines. Subjects were also instructed to return the empty containers and sachets. The details of study schedule are presented in [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Study schedule.|
Note: DSQ: Diabetes Symptom Questionnaire; FBS: fasting blood sugar; PPBS: postprandial blood sugar; SF-36: 36-Item Short Form Health Survey.
Click here to view
All data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 15.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Comparison of clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters were subjected to repeated measures analysis of varince to elicit the within-subjects and between-subjects effects at baseline and different time points of follow-up. Paired sample t-test was used to compare mean changes in the hematological and biochemical parameters, and DSQ. The percentage of relief was calculated by applying the formula (BT–AT) × 100/AT (BT: Before test; AT: after test).
| Results|| |
Total 180 subjects were included in this study (n = 60 in each center), among them 162 subjects completed the trial and data of 15 subjects imputed as they had taken one month course of treatment. The last observation of these subjects were carry forward till the end of study. Finally, data of 177 subjects were analyzed and the details are shown in [Figure 2].
The detailed demographic profile of 177 subjects is presented in [Table 1].
|Table 1: Demographic and baseline characteristics of 177 included participants|
Click here to view
It is observed that 74% of patients had no addictions, 76.3% of patients had normal sleep, 87.6% had regular bowel habits, 39.1% of patients were having Pitta Kapha prakriti followed by 26.3% with Vata-Pittaja Prakriti.
Effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati on signs & symptoms mentioned in classical ayurveda
Effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati on the clinical signs and symptoms specifically mentioned for Madhumeha in classical ayurveda was assessed at baseline and at the end of the treatment. The effect of the drug on each parameter is shown in [Figure 3].
|Figure 3: Effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati on signs & symptoms mentioned in classical ayurvedic at baseline and after treatment (84th day).|
Click here to view
Mamajjaka Ghanavati had significant effects on each parameter at the end of the treatment relative to the baseline, i.e., 70% of subjects got relief from the symptom Madhuryamasya (sweetness in the mouth), 78% of subjects got relief from Hastapadadaha (burning sensation in the palm and feet) and 75% of subjects from Avila-mutrata (morbidity in the urine). Further, more than 60–65% of subjects got relief from Dehachikkanata (developed oiliness in the skin) and Trishna (excessive thirst).
Effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati on chief complaints
At baseline, 94 (53%) subjects complained of polyurea, 80 (45%) subjects complained of polyphagia, 127 (71.8%) and 110 (62%) subjects complained of exhaustion/tiredness and body ache respectively. Other complaints like giddiness, visual disturbances, and polyneuritis were also present in some of the subjects. The effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati after three months of treatment is shown in [Figure 4].
|Figure 4: Effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati on chief complaints of the subjects at baseline and after treatment (84th day).|
Click here to view
The result shows that 99.9% of subjects got relief from the symptom polydipsia followed by 86.3% of subjects from giddiness, 82.5% of subjects from polyphagia, 81% of subjects from exhaustion/tiredness, 79% of subjects from body ache and 78.5% of subjects from the symptom visual disturbances.
Effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati on outcome measures
[Table 2] shows that DSQ results showed significant changes on the 84th day relative to baseline (P < 0.001). However, though there were no changes in other parameters like HbA1c, FBS and PPBS but these were static during the study period. There were no abnormal changes in the hematological parameters during the study. No significant changes in liver and renal function tests at the 84th day relative to baseline (P > 0.05). There were no abnormal changes in safety parameters, i.e., liver and kidney functions.
[Figure 5] shows the effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati on the QOL of the subjects, which was assessed by SF-36 consisting of eight domains. There were significant changes in the score of domains like energy/fatigue, pain emotional well-being, social functioning and general health (P < 0.001).
|Figure 5: Effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati on various domains of 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and after treatment (84th day).|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The present study on the role of Mamajjaka Ghanavati in the management of DM shows that this drug is effective in reducing the symptoms like Hastapadadaha (burning sensation in hands and feet) Prabhutamutrata & Avila-Mutrata (increased frequency/quantity of the urine and morbidity of urine), Trishna (feeling of thirst), Galatalushosha (dryness in oropharyngeal region), Sweda (excessive sweating) as observed in [Figure 3]. The disease specific ayurvedic parameters of Madhumeha mentioned above show the observational supremacy of Ayurveda as these symptoms predict the disease in its early stage and help to check its progression and complications.As evident from [Figure 4], there has been a marked improvement in the subjective parameters like Polyuria, Polyphagia, Polydipsia, Exhaustion, Bodyache, Giddiness, polyneuritis, and visual disturbances. Clinically, these findings are very relevant because diabetes management has largely focused on control of hyperglycemia, while the rising burden of this disease is mainly correlated to its vascular complications. Reduction in the signs and symptoms implies that the disease is not progressing towards complications.
The mere presence of diabetes deteriorates a person's QOL. QOL is an important health outcome in its own right, representing the ultimate goal of all health interventions. In patients with diabetes, one of the most important methods for evaluating the efficacy of treatment regimen and care is to assess their quality of life.
In this study, subject's QOL was assessed by SF-36. SF-36 consists of 36 questions (items) measuring physical and mental health status in eight health domains. Among the eight health domains, the domains like pain, energy/fatigue, etc showed significant changes after 84 days treatment with trial drug relative to baseline.
Changes in the domain “social functioning”, “Pain” represent health status as absence of disability whereas the significant changes in the domain “General health and energy/fatigue” implies positive health state. The positive changes in the QOL suggest a new approach toward diabetes management. Probably, the trial drug has helped in maintaining the normal state of Agni and Ojas, i.e., stabilizing metabolism and strengthening the immunity of diabetic patients.
On the other hand, diabetes has been known as an oxidative stress disorder caused by imbalance between free radical formation and the ability of the body's natural antioxidants. There is considerable evidence that induction of oxidative stress is a key process in the onset of diabetic complications. There is evidence that antioxidants exhibit protective effects and they may be helpful in treating diabetes and its complications. The antioxidant effect of Mamajjaka, Pippali, and Katuki might have brought about the significant changes in energy/fatigue and SF-36. The combined antioxidant effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati might have contributed to the improvement in QOL and reduction of symptoms.
In spite of replacement of habituated hypoglycemic drug like Metformin by trial drug, HbA1c value remains at 6.2% before and after the trial. As presented in [Table 2], no much change is observed in FBS, PPBS from baseline to post-treatment and to post-trial, which implies that mild hypoglycemic action has been exerted, though it has not shown any marked changes. In contrast to these reports, the potent anti-diabetic properties of Mamajjaka and Mamajjaka Ghanavati lowering FBS and PPBS by Mamajjaka Ghanavati has been reported by many scientists.,,
Experimental studies have also revealed the dose-dependent hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Mamajjaka as well as the glucose-lowering effect of the aqueous extract of Mamajjaka., Hence, it is recommended to carry out the study in a larger number of patients with minor alterations in the inclusion criteria (HbA1c 4.8–5.8%) so that mild hypoglycemic action can be elicited.
Limitation of the study
As this is an open study without any masking, a controlled study in comparison with standard drug may be undertaken with longer duration of treatment (6 months) and with a bigger sample size.
This clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Mamajjaka Ghanavati on T2DM. The above formulation has also brought in significant amelioration of chief complaints and improved QOL on SF-36 scale. In addition, there were no significant changes in hepatic and renal parameters. This may be safely used for the treatment of DM.
Additional file 1: Model consent form.
The authors are highly indebted to the Director General, CCRAS, New Delhi for in time support. The authors are also thankful to the study participants. Thanks also conveyed to Dr. Aarti Sheetal, Senior Research Fellow (Ayurveda) for her technical assistance.
Concept and design of the study, interpretation of data, drafting and revision of the article: MNS, SO; data acquisition: MNS, BD, GCN, GKS, SD, MMR, VT; analysis of data: RR, RS; revising the article critically for important intellectual content: BSS, SK; approval of final article for publication: AK, NS.
Conflicts of interest
This work was supported by a grant from Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Ministry of AYUSH, New Delhi. The funding body played no role in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data, in the writing of the article, and in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Institutional review board statement
This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi (approval number: CTRI Reg No Ref/2016/06/011468) on March 14, 2016 and registered in the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2017/09/009887) on September 22, 2017. The study was performed following the guidelines of WHO_Good Clinical Practices (GCP) and GCP of India.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the forms, the patients have given their consent for their clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity.
This study follows the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
The statistical methods of this study were reviewed by the biostatistician of Central Council of Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Ministry of AYUSH, India.
Copyright license agreement
The Copyright License Agreement has been signed by all authors before publication.
Data sharing statement
The data of individual subject will not be provided. However, the study protocol and report will be made available to the researchers beginning 9 months and ending 36 months following article publication. To access the same the researcher has to request Director General, CCRAS through e-mail email@example.com.
Checked twice by iThenticate.
Externally peer reviewed.
| References|| |
Pandey AK. Ayurvedic Concept of Prediabetes/Diabetes Mellitus & Its Management: A Scientific Overview. Scope of Translational Researches in Ayurvedic Medicine. Varanasi: Mahima Research Foundation and Social Welfare
Liu X, Wang L, Wang P, et al. The dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence and management rates among rural population in Henan province, China. J Diabetes Res
Ogurtsova K, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Huang Y, et al. IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates for the prevalence of diabetes for 2015 and 2040. Diabetes Res Clin Pract
Tripathy JP, Thakur JS, Jeet G, et. al. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in a large community-based study in North India: results from a STEPS survey in Punjab, India. Diabetol Metab Syndr
Kakkar R. Rising burden of diabetes-public health challenges and way out, Nepal. J Epidemiol
Kumar S, Singh G, Pandey AK, Singh RH. A clinical study on the Naimittika Rasayana effect of Silajatu and Mamajjaka in type-2 diabetes mellitus. Ayu
Vijayvargia R, Kumar M, Gupta S. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale Blume (chhotachirayata) on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Indian J Exp Biol
Vasu VT, Modi H, Thaikoottathil JV, Gupta S. Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effect of EnicostemmalittoraleBlume aqueous extract in cholesterol fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol
|9.|Bhaishajya Samhita Gujarat Rajya Bhaishajya Samiti
. Ahmedabad: Health Ministry Gujarat Publisher; 1960.
Sharma PV. Shodahala Nighantu Namasangraha and Gunasangraha
. Baroda: Oriental Institute; 1978.
Verma A, Janani H, Yadav S, Ghimire S, Patgiri BJ, Prajapati PK. Pharmaceutico-physicochemical validation of Mamajjaka Ghana tablet, a potent antidiabetic medicine. BLDE Univ J Health Sci
|12.|The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part- I Volume – IX
. Ghaziabad: Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine & Homoeopathy; 2016.
Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med
Tierney ML, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment, 38th ed
. USA: Mcgraw-hill/appleton & lange;
|16.|The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part-II Volume-IV
. New Delhi: Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India; 2017.
Agnivesa. Prameha Cikitsa. In: Sharma RK, Das B, eds. Volume II. Charakasamhita
. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit series; 2009.
Bajaj S, Khan A. Antioxidants and diabetes. Indian J Endocr Metab
Rubin RR, Peyrot M. Quality of life and diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev
Mustapha W, Hossain ZS, Loughlin KO. Management and impact of diabetes on quality of life among the Lebanese community of Sydney: a quantitative study. J Diabetes Metab
Zatalia SR, Sanusi H. The role of antioxidants in the pathophysiology, complications, and management of diabetes mellitus. Acta Med Indones
Matough FA, Budin SB, Hamid ZA, Alwahaibi N, Mohamed J. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in diabetic complications. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J
. 2012;12: 5-18.
Thirumalai T, Viviyan TS, Elumalai EK, David E. Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effect of Enicostemma littorale Blume. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed
Shaik AB, Ali MS, Natava R, Tilak TK, Apparao C. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Chem
Krupashree KK, HemanthKumar P, Rachitha GV, Khanum JF. Chemical composition, antioxidant and macromolecule damage protective effects of Picrorhizakurroa Royle ex Benth. S Afr J Bot
Upadhyay UM, Goyal RK. Efficacy of Enicostemma littorale in type 2 diabetic patients. Phytother Res
Shukla A, Shukla HM. Antidiabetic herbal drugs: a review. Int Ayurvedic Med J
Shukla A, Shukla HM. Single Blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of Mamajjaka ghanavati in Prameha with special reference diabetes mellitus. JAHM
Maroo J, Vasu T. Dose dependant hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale blume in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine
Maroo J, Vasu T. Glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale Blume in diabetes: a possible mechanism of action. J.Ethnopharmacol
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
[Table 1], [Table 2]