• Users Online: 172
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 14-18

Effect of beraprost sodium on pulmonary hypertension due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction: Protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial


1 Department of Cardiology; Department of Emergency, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China
2 Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China

Date of Submission19-Nov-2018
Date of Acceptance27-Feb-2019
Date of Web Publication25-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Liang-Ping Zhao
Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province
China
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2542-3975.254107

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background and objectives: Beraprost sodium is mainly adapted to peripheral chronic arterial occlusive disease. However, the efficacy and safety of beraprost sodium in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (PH-HFrEF) remain unknown. The main objective of this study is to ascertain the efficacy and safety of beraprost sodium in the treatment of PH-HFrEF.
Subjects and methods: In this prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 462 consecutively recruited patients with PH-HFrEF are randomly assigned to receive routine treatment only or routine treatment in combination with oral administration of beraprost sodium 1 μg/kg for 1 year. All patients are followed up at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction are assessed by echocardiography, and exercise tolerance is assessed by a 6-minute walk test. Cardiac events are also recorded. This trial was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University (approval number: JD-LK-2017-021-02). Patient recruitment began in February 2018. Analysis of primary outcome measure will be completed in September 2021, and the study will be finished in September 2021.
Outcome measures: Outcome measures are assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. The primary outcome measure is the reduction rate of systolic pulmonary artery pressure. The secondary outcome measures are the incidence of major adverse cardiac events, left ventricular ejection fraction, and 6-minute walking distance.
Discussion: Results of this study will provide evidence to validate whether application of beraprost sodium based on routine treatment can further reduce pulmonary artery pressure, improve cardiac function, reduce the incidence of heart events, and finally determine whether beraprost sodium is suitable for the treatment of PH-HFrEF.
Trial registration: This trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR-IPR-17012961) on October 12, 2017.

Keywords: beraprost; pulmonary hypertension; heart failure; pulmonary artery pressure; ejection fraction; exercise tolerance; prognosis; randomized controlled trial


How to cite this article:
Wang L, Chen YQ, Zhao LP, Chang XS, Liu X, Wang WJ, Chen JC, Xu WT. Effect of beraprost sodium on pulmonary hypertension due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction: Protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin Trials Degener Dis 2019;4:14-8

How to cite this URL:
Wang L, Chen YQ, Zhao LP, Chang XS, Liu X, Wang WJ, Chen JC, Xu WT. Effect of beraprost sodium on pulmonary hypertension due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction: Protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin Trials Degener Dis [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jun 26];4:14-8. Available from: http://www.clinicaltdd.com/text.asp?2019/4/1/14/254107


  Introduction Top


Background

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a refractory disease with high cost and poor prognosis including five groups according to clinical presentation, pathological findings, hemodynamic characteristics, and treatment strategy.[1] PH due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (PH-HFrEF) is common with morbidity and mortality rates.[2],[3] PH-HFrEF is characterized by backward transmission of filling pressures due to impaired left ventricular systolic function with the increased pulmonary artery wedge pressure, and may further lead to right ventricle overload and right ventricular failure.[4] At present, in addition to the treatment for left ventricular failure, there is still a lack of other ways to further reduce patient's pulmonary artery pressure and improve the whole heart function.

Beraprost is the first chemically stable and orally active prostacyclin analogue, and has antiplatelet and vessel-dilating effects. It is mainly used to reverse intermittent claudication and reduce the pain and cold symptoms caused by peripheral chronic arterial occlusive disease.[5] A small sample-sized study including severe primary pulmonary hypertension showed that oral administration of beraprost may result in long-lasting clinical and hemodynamic improvements.[6] The other two randomized controlled trials mainly selecting primary pulmonary hypertension patients showed that beraprost improves the exercise capacity that persists up to 3–6 months. But, there were no hemodynamic improvements or long-term outcome benefits.[7],[8]

The pathogenesis of PH-HFrEF is completely different from that of primary pulmonary hypertension, so different therapies are used. There is a lack of related study on the use of beraprost in patients with PH-HFrEF. In this study, we gave beraprost sodium orally to patients with PH-HFrEF on the basis of routine treatment to investigate the efficacy and safety of this therapy.

Objectives

The objectives of this study are to investigate whether beraprost sodium in combination with routine treatment can further reduce pulmonary artery pressure, improve cardiac function, and reduce the incidence of heart events in patients with PH-HFrEF, and evaluate the adverse drug reactions.


  Methods/Design Top


Study design and setting

This is a prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and the Seventh People's Hospital of Suzhou, China. This trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR-IPR-17012961) on October 12, 2017. The flow chart of this trial is given in [Figure 1]. The study protocol was developed based on the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines[9] (Additional file 1[Additional file 1] ).
Figure 1: Flow chart of the study.
Note: PH-HFrEF: Pulmonary hypertension due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction; sPAP: systolic pulmonary artery pressure; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; MACE: major adverse cardiac events; NT-proBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide.


Click here to view


Study population

Consecutively hospitalized patients with heart failure are included in this study.

Inclusion criteria

Male or female patients aged 18 to 85 years are examined by echocardiography to determine whether there is left ventricular systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction < 45%) and PH (systolic pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mmHg). The PH-HFrEF is defined as the left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) > 40 mmHg.[1] All measurements are performed following the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography.[10],[11]

Exclusion criteria

Patients with shock, hemorrhagic disease, severe hepatic insufficiency, acute stage of myocardial infarction, pregnancy, malignant tumor, or other types of pulmonary hypertension (such as idiopathic, connective tissue diseases, drugs, thromboembolic, chronic lung disease, portal hypertension, and congenital heart disease) are excluded.

Baseline measures

N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, leukocyte, hemoglobin, platelets, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, glutamic oxalate aminotransferase, and serum lipid profiles including triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are assessed using standard methods. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the recruited patients are collected from hospital case records and include age, sex, cigarette smoking status, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and principal diagnosis. Patient's height (m) and body weight (kg) in light clothing are measured, and body mass index (kg/m2) is calculated.

Grouping and administration

After providing informed consent, the selected PH-HFrEF patients were randomly divided into routine treatment only and beraprost sodium + beraprost sodium groups.

Patients with PH-HFrEF are given beraprost sodium (Beijing Tede Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Beijing, China) orally for 1 year (1 μg/kg per day, three times of administration) on the basis of routine treatment including diuretics, spironolactone, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, βblockers, and digoxin. If there are no complications such as shock, severe bleeding, or severe liver function damage, the dosage of beraprost sodium is not changed.

Outcome measures

Outcome measures are assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. These include general indexes (aortic systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, heart rate, and rhythm, New York Heart Association cardiac function classification, electrocardiogram), echocardiographic indexes (sPAP and left ventricular ejection fraction), 6-minute walking distance, and blood parameters (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, glutamic oxalate aminotransferase, leukocyte, hemoglobin, and platelet).

Primary outcome measure

The primary outcome is the reduction rate of sPAP at 12 months after treatment compared with baseline. The reduction rate of sPAP is (sPAP at baseline – sPAP at 12 months after treatment)/sPAP at baseline ×100%.

Secondary outcome measures

The secondary outcome measures are the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), left ventricular ejection fraction and 6-minute walking distance. The MACEs include cardiac death, heart failure readmission, myocardial infarction, and new onset of atrial fibrillation.

The time frame and measures are listed in [Table 1].
Table 1: Timing of outcome measures

Click here to view


Adverse events

Adverse events including severe hemorrhage (intracerebral hemorrhage, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage), shock and hepatic insufficiency (alanine aminotransferase exceeded the normal upper limit by three times), are recorded. If severe adverse reactions occur, the investigators will report the details and provide urgent treatment. Whether the adverse events are drug-related is determined according to the medical history, clinical manifestations, and auxiliary examinations.

Sample size

According to the primary outcome measure, we hypothesized that the reduction rate of sPAP was 45% in the routine treatment + beraprost sodium group and 30% in the routine treatment group. Taking α = 0.05, power = 90%, and withdrawal rate = 10%, the total sample size calculated by PASS 11 software (NCSS, Silver Spring, MD, USA) was 231 cases in each group.

According to the secondary outcome measures, we hypothesized that the incidence of MACE was 10% in the beraprost sodium group, 20% in the routine treatment group. Taking α = 0.05, power = 90%, and withdrawal rate = 10%, the total sample size calculated by PASS 11 software was 191 cases in each group.

Therefore, the total sample size required for this study was 231 cases in each group.

Statistical analysis

The final data will be analyzed by SPSS 17.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The chi-square test will be used for analyzing count data, and Student's t-test (normal distribution) or Mann-Whitney U test (non-normal distribution) will be used for analyzing quantitative data.

The difference of reduction rate of sPAP between the routine treatment and routine treatment + beraprost sodium groups will be analyzed by Student's t-test (normal distribution) or Mann-Whitney U test (non-normal distribution). The chi-square test will be used to analyze the incidence of MACE between the two groups. The Kaplan-Meier method (i.e., log-rank test) will be used for survival analysis and Cox regression will be used to evaluate independent predictors of MACE occurrence.

Data monitoring

Data summarization and case verification are conducted every 3 months. All adverse events are recorded and properly handled. Investigators should trace the adverse events until they are properly resolved or stable, and report them to the ethics committee in time. Principal investigators should review all adverse events accumulatively every 3 months, and convene a meeting among investigators to assess the risks and benefits of the study if necessary.

Investigator training

Case report forms are prepared to standardize the investigation and survey techniques and to improve the working ability and responsibility of the investigators.

Ethics and dissemination

This trial was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, China (approval number: JD-LK-2017-021-02) and are undertaken in accordance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent is obtained from the patients before enrollment (Additional file 2 [Additional file 2] ). Patient recruitment was initiated in February 2018. Analysis of primary outcome measure will be completed in September 2021, and the study will be finished in September 2021. Dissemination plans include presentations at scientific conferences and publication in scientific journals.


  Discussion Top


PH-HFrEF is different from other types of PH in terms of pathogenesis and management. Unlike heterozygous BMPR2 mutations accounting for approximately 75% of familial pulmonary arterial hypertension, no specific genetic linkage has been identified for PH-HFrEF.[2],[12] PH is common in patients with chronic heart failure. Up to 60% of patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction develop PH, and almost all patients with severe symptomatic mitral valve disease have PH whether or not with heart failure.[13],[14]

Management of PH-HFrEF is a systematic work. Treatment for group 1 PH (idiopathic, heritable, drugs and toxins induced, associated with connective tissue disease, etc.) in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines does not apply to patients with PH-HFrEF.[1] Most of the clinical findings showed that PH-specific therapies (e.g., endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulators) had no effects on PH-HFrEF and some could even be regarded as harmful.[15],[16],[17] General therapies for heart failure including diuretics, digoxin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers are recommended for the treatment of PH-HFrEF.[18] Furthermore, identifying and treating possible causes of heart failure, such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and heart valve disease, is important.[19]

Beraprost, a stable and oral prostacyclin analogue, is recommended for peripheral chronic arterial disease.[5] Like prostacyclin, beraprost acts on the prostacyclin receptor in platelets and vascular smooth muscle, activates adenylate cyclase, increases intracellular cAMP concentration, inhibits Ca2+ influx and thromboxane A2 production, and thus plays the antiplatelet and vasodilatory effects. In addition, beraprost can increase the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in mouse and bovine aortic endothelial cells,[20] and suppress tumor necrosis factor-α expression in human monocytes via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway,[21] which are all beneficial to vascular diseases.

Our pilot study with a small sample size showed that oral administration of beraprost sodium on the basis of routine treatment may reduce patient's sPAP, increase left ventricular ejection fraction and 6-minute walking distance. There were no cardiac death, myocardial infarction, shock, severe bleeding, and severe impairment of liver function, which indicate the great efficacy and safety of beraprost in these patients. Therefore, we designed this randomized controlled trial to investigate whether the addition of beraprost sodium on the basis of routine treatment can further reduce pulmonary artery pressure, improve cardiac function, reduce the incidence of heart events in patients with PH-HFrEF.

Trial Status

We are currently recruiting participants.

Additional files

Additional file 1: SPIRIT Checklist.

Additional file 2: Model consent form (Chinese).

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank all subjects who have agreed to participate in the study.

Author contributions

Chief investigator of this study: LPZ; coinvestigators: LW, YQC, XSC, XL, WJW, JCC, WTX; concept and design of the study: LW, YQC; manuscript drafting: LW; patient recruitment: XSC, XL, WJW; follow-ups: JCC, WTX; approval of final manuscript for publication: all authors.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Financial support

No current funding sources for this study.

Institutional review board statement

The protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University (approval number: JD-LK-2017-021-02).

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they will obtain all appropriate patient consent forms. In the forms, the patients will give their consent for their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Reporting statement

This study protocol was reported in line with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.

Biostatistics statement

The statistical methods of this study were reviewed by the biostatistician of the Soochow University in China.

Copyright transfer agreement

The Copyright License Agreement has been signed by all authors before publication.

Data sharing statement

Individual participant data that underlie the results reported in this article, after deidentification will be in particular shared. Study protocol and informed consent form will be available. The data will be available immediately following publication without end date. Results will be disseminated through presentations at scientific meetings and/or by publication in a peer reviewed journal. Anonymized trial data will be available indefinitely at www.figshare.com.

Plagiarism check

Checked twice by iThenticate.

Peer review

Externally peer reviewed.

Open access statement

This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.



 
  References Top

1.
Galiè N, Humbert M, Vachiery JL, et al. 2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: The Joint Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS): Endorsed by: Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC), International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). Eur Heart J. 2016;37:67-119.   Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Oudiz RJ. Pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease. Clin Chest Med. 2007;28:233-241.   Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Schmeisser A, Schroetter H, Braun-Dulleaus RC. Management of pulmonary hypertension in left heart disease. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;7:131-151.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Farber HW, Gibbs S. Under pressure: pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease. Eur Respir Rev. 2015;24:665-673.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Alonso-Coello P, Bellmunt S, McGorrian C, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in peripheral artery disease: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012;141(2 Suppl):e669S-690S.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Vizza CD, Sciomer S, Morelli S, et al. Long term treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension with beraprost, an oral prostacyclin analogue. Heart. 2001;86:661-665.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Galiè N, Humbert M, Vachiéry JL, et al. Effects of beraprost sodium, an oral prostacyclin analogue, in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:1496-1502.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Barst RJ, McGoon M, McLaughlin V, et al. Beraprost therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:2119-2125.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Chan AW, Tetzlaff JM, Gotzsche PC, et al. SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration: guidance for protocols of clinical trials. BMJ. 2013;346:e7586.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Lang RM, Bierig M, Devereux RB, et al. Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005;18:1440-1463.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ommen SR, Nishimura RA, Hurrell DG, et al. Assessment of right atrial pressure with 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography: a simultaneous catheterization and echocardiographic study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75:24-29.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Soubrier F, Chung WK, Machado R, et al. Genetics and genomics of pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(25 Suppl):D13-21.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Badesch DB, Champion HC, Sanchez MA, et al. Diagnosis and assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(1 Suppl):S55-66.   Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Vahanian A, Alfieri O, Andreotti F, et al. Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease (version 2012). Eur Heart J. 2012;33:2451-2496.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Redfield MM, Chen HH, Borlaug BA, et al. Effect of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition on exercise capacity and clinical status in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;309:1268-1277.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Kalra PR, Moon JC, Coats AJ. Do results of the ENABLE (Endothelin Antagonist Bosentan for Lowering Cardiac Events in Heart Failure) study spell the end for non-selective endothelin antagonism in heart failure? Int J Cardiol. 2002;85(2-3):195-197.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Bonderman D, Ghio S, Felix SB, et al. Riociguat for patients with pulmonary hypertension caused by systolic left ventricular dysfunction: a phase IIb double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging hemodynamic study. Circulation. 2013;128:502-511.   Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Cheli M, Vachiery JL. Controversies in pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease. F1000Prime Rep. 2015;7:07.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Guazzi M, Borlaug BA. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease. Circulation. 2012;126:975-990.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Niwano K, Arai M, Tomaru K, et al. Transcriptional stimulation of the eNOS gene by the stable prostacyclin analogue beraprost is mediated through cAMP-responsive element in vascular endothelial cells: close link between PGI2 signal and NO pathways. Circ Res. 2003;93:523-530.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Wang WL, Kuo CH, Chu YT, Huang CH, Lam KP, Huang SK, Jong YJ, Kuo YT, Hung CH. Prostaglandin I(2) analogues suppress TNF-α expression in human monocytes via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Inflamm Res. 2011;60:655-663.  Back to cited text no. 21
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods/Design
Discussion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed249    
    Printed31    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded40    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]